Resolve Conflict Now-Moving to a Better Tomorrow
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People will shift to them because they work, because they are far less expensive and because they are always available. In the hopefully near future, we will not segregate schooling from work and real-world thinking and development. And, again, the experience of being a student, now confined to grade school, secondary school and university, will expand to include workers, those looking for work, and those who want or need to retrain — as well as what we now think of as conventional education.
Via simulation, gaming, digital presentations — combined with hands-on, real-world experience — learning and re-education will move out of books and into the world. The more likely enhancement will be to take digital enhancements out into the world — again, breaking down the walls of the classroom and school — to inform and enhance experience. Some respondents expressed confidence in the best of current online education and training options, saying online course options are cost-effective, evolving for the better, and game-changing because they are globally accessible.
Already, today there are quite effective online training and education systems, but they are not being implemented to their full potential. Edward Friedman. These applications will become more widely used with familiarity that is gained during the next decade. Also, populations will be more tech-savvy and be able to make use of these systems with greater personal ease. In addition, the development of virtual reality, AI assistants and other technological advances will add to the effectiveness of these systems.
There will be a greater need for such systems as the needs for new expertise in the workforce [increase] and the capacity of traditional education systems proves that it is not capable of meeting the need in a cost-effective manner. These career changes will require retooling, training and education. The adult learners will not be able to visit physical campuses to access this learning; they will learn online. I anticipate the further development and distribution of holoportation technologies such as those developed by Microsoft using HoloLens for real-time, three-dimensional augmented reality.
These teaching tools will enable highly sophisticated interactions and engagement with students at a distance.
They will further fuel the scaling of learning to reach even more massive online classes. As these tools evolve over the next decade, the academics we work with expect to see radical change in training and workforce development, which will roll into although probably against a longer timeline more traditional institutions of higher learning. Many respondents said real-world, campus-based higher education will continue to thrive during the next decade.
They said a residential university education helps build intangible skills that are not replicable online and thus deepens the skills base of those who can afford to pay for such an education, but they expect that job-specific training will be managed by employers on the job and via novel approaches. The most important skills to have in life are gained through interpersonal experiences and the liberal arts.
Frank Elavsky. Traditional four-year and graduate programs will better prepare people for jobs in the future, as such an education gives people a general understanding and knowledge about their field, and here people learn how to approach new things, ask questions and find answers, deal with new situations, etc. Special skills for a particular job will be learned on the job.
These skills are imperative to focus on, as the future is in danger of losing these skillsets from the workforce. Many people have gained these skills throughout history without any kind of formal schooling, but with the growing emphasis on virtual and digital mediums of production, education and commerce, people will have less and less exposure to other humans in person and other human perspectives.
But this does not mean that alternative means and paths of learning and accreditation would not be useful as … complementary to the traditional system that has limitations as well. Will training for skills most important in the jobs of the future work well in large-scale settings by ? Respondents in this canvassing overwhelmingly said yes, anticipating that improvements in such education would continue.
However, many believe the most vital skills are not easy to teach, learn or evaluate in any education or training setting available today. These skills, interestingly, are the skills specific to human beings that machines and robots cannot do … Tiffany Shlain. There will be an increasing economic incentive to develop mass training that better unlocks this value.
Functions requiring emotional intelligence, empathy, compassion, and creative judgment and discernment will expand and be increasingly valued in our culture. These skills, interestingly, are the skills specific to human beings that machines and robots cannot do, and you can be taught to strengthen these skills through education. I look forward to seeing innovative live and online programs that can teach these at scale.
A mindset of persistence and the necessary passion to succeed are also critical. Some who are pessimistic about the future of human work due to advances in capable AI and robotics mocked the current push in the U. An anonymous program director for a major U. The jobs of the future will not need large numbers of workers with a fixed set of skills — most things that we can train large numbers of workers for, we will also be able to train computers to do better.
Among the many other skills mentioned were: process-oriented and system-oriented thinking; journalistic skills, including research, evaluation of multiple sources, writing and speaking; understanding algorithms, computational thinking , networking and programming; grasping law and policy; an evidence-based way of looking at the world; time management; conflict resolution; decision-making; locating information in the flood of data; storytelling using data; and influencing and consensus building.
This will include open, online learning experiences e. We will identify opportunities to build a digital version of the apprenticeship learning models that have existed in the past. Alternative credentials and digital badges will provide more granular opportunities to document and archive learning over time from traditional and nontraditional learning sources. Through evolving technologies e.
You may get a degree in computer software development, but the truth is that you still need to be taught how to write software for, say, the mortgage company or insurance company that hires you. The key to the future will be flexibility and personal motivation to learn and tinker with new things. Some predict that many more workers will begin using online and app-based learning systems. Employers will accept these more as they prove probative.
And online learning will be more prevalent, even as an adjunct to formal classroom learning. New industries such as green energy and telemedicine will increase new employment opportunities. Despite all of these measures, the loss of jobs from artificial intelligence and robotics will exceed any retraining program, at least in the short run. William J. Online and credentialing systems are more transparent and do a better job on delivering skills. People with new types of credentialing systems are seen as more qualified than traditional four-year and graduate programs. Some respondents hope to see change.
Schools today turn out widget makers who can make widgets all the same. They are built on producing single right answers rather than creative solutions. Jeff Jarvis. The unfortunate reality is that many HR departments still post job listings saying degrees and certifications are required, as a way of screening candidates. Thus, the educational and training programs of the future will become in their best incarnations sophisticated combinations of classroom and hands-on training programs.
The specific models will necessarily be responding to individual industry requirements. They are built on an outmoded attention economy: Pay us for 45 hours of your attention and we will certify your knowledge. I believe that many — not all — areas of instruction should shift to competency-based education in which the outcomes needed are made clear and students are given multiple paths to achieve those outcomes, and they are certified not based on tests and grades but instead on portfolios of their work demonstrating their knowledge.
Some even say the future of jobs for humans is so baleful that capitalism may fail as an economic system. The next themes and subthemes examine these responses. A large share of respondents predicted that online formats for knowledge transfer will not advance significantly in the next decade. Interestingly, being able to adapt and respond to looming challenges was seen by nearly everyone in this canvassing as one of the most highly prized future capabilities; these respondents especially agree that it is important, and they say that our human institutions — government, business, education — are not adapting efficiently and are letting us down.
Many of them say that current K or K education programs are incapable of making adjustments within the next decade to serve the shifting needs of future jobs markets. Among the other reasons listed by people who do not expect these kinds of transformative advances in job creation and job skill upgrading:. Following are representative statements tied to these points and more from all respondents.
Traditional models train people to equate what they do with who they are i. Pamela Rutledge. Learning takes time and practice, which means it requires money, lots of money, to significantly change the skill set of a large cohort. As manufacturing and many labor-intensive jobs move overseas or are fully mechanized, we will see a bulge in service jobs. These require good people skills, something that is often hard to train online. Individual training — like programming or learning how to cook — may not be what will be needed.
Resolve Conflict Now Moving To A Better Tomorrow English Edition
The most important skills are advanced critical thinking and knowledge of globalization affecting diverse societies — culturally, religiously and politically. We have traditional institutions invested in learning as a supply-side model rather [than] demand-side that would create proactive, self-directed learners. This bias impacts the entire process, from educators to employers. It is changing, but beliefs are sticky and institutions are cumbersome bureaucracies that are slow to adapt.
New delivery systems for skills related to technology will be more readily accepted than traditional ones because they avoid much of the embedded bias. I have zero confidence in us having the political will to address the socio-economic factors that are underpinning skill training. Furthermore, we have serious geographic mismatches, underlying discriminatory attitudes, and limited opportunities for lower- [to] mid-level career advancement.
It just sounds nice. Many respondents emphasized that the most crucial skill is that people have to learn how to learn and be self-motivated to keep learning. My biggest concern with self-directed learning is that it requires a great deal of internal motivation. And I am not confident that individuals will find their way … David Berstein. So everyone will still need some basic skills interpersonal communications, basic arithmetic, along with some general culture awareness [so] they can have that flexibility.
What I worry about is how well they will adapt when they are 35 or This ability to adapt is what distinguished Homo sapiens from other species through natural selection. As the rate of technological innovation intensifies, the workforce of the future will need to adapt to new technology and new markets.
The people who can adapt the best and fastest will win. This view means that any given set of skills will become obsolete quickly as innovations change the various economic sectors: precision agriculture, manufacturing 4. Therefore, the challenge is not only to teach skills, but also how to adapt and learn new skills.
Whether the traditional programs or new programs will be better at teaching adaptive learning remains to be seen. Many ambitious federal and state programs have fizzled, to produce dismal to no statistical change in the caliber of K education. Online mediums and self-directed approaches may be limited in effectiveness with certain labor segments unless supplemented by human coaching and support systems.
It is true that most online courses require self-direction. But in-person courses may also be self-directed. This works well for some students but not others. Students who are self-directed often have had a very good foundational education and supportive parents. They have been taught to think critically and they know that the most important thing you can learn is how to learn. And they are also are more likely to come from economic privilege.
So, not only does the self-direction factor pose a problem for teaching at scale, the fact that a high degree of self-direction may be required for successful completion of coursework towards the new workforce means that existing structures of inequality will be replicated in the future if we rely on these large-scale programs.
The problem of future jobs is not one of skills training — it is one of diminishing jobs. How will we cope with a workforce that is simply irrelevant? Jennifer Zickerman. But in the next decade or two, there is likely to be a significant amount of technological innovation in machine intelligence and personal assistants that takes a real swipe out of the jobs we want humans to have in education, health care, transportation, agriculture and public safety.
As for the skills for the employed fraction of advanced countries, I think they will be difficult to teach. Nathaniel Borenstein. Algorithms, automation and robotics will result in capital no longer needing labor to progress the economic agenda. Labor becomes, in many ways, surplus to economic requirements. By the time the training programs are widely available, the required skills will no longer be required. The whole emphasis of training must now be directed towards personal life skills development rather than the traditional working career-based approach. There is also the massive sociological economic impact of general automation and AI that must be addressed to redistribute wealth and focus life skills at lifelong learning.
We urgently need to explore how to distribute the increasing wealth of complex goods and services our civilization produces to a populace that will be increasingly jobless in the traditional sense. The current trend of concentrating wealth in the hands of a diminishing number of ultra-rich individuals is unsustainable. All of this while dealing with the destabilizing effects of climate change and the adaptations necessary to mitigate its worst impacts.
Some of these experts projected further out into the future, imagining a world where the machines themselves learn and overtake core human emotional and cognitive capacities. Timothy C. This section features responses by several more of the many top analysts who participated in this canvassing.
Following this wide-ranging set of comments on the topic, a much more expansive set of quotations directly tied to the set of four themes begins on Page From the employer perspective, this type of learning will only grow. The automation of human labor will grow significantly. And having a workforce trained in discrete and atomizable bits of skills will be seen as a benefit by employers.
This of course is a terrible, soulless, insecure life for the workers, but since when did that really change anything? There will also be a parallel call for benefits, professional development, and compensation that smooths out the rough patches in this on-demand labor life, but such efforts will lag behind the exploitation of said labor because big business has more resources and big tech moves too fast for human-scale responses of accountability and responsibility. Look at Linux and open-source development. The world runs on both now, and they employ millions of human beings.
Many, or most, of the new open-source programmers building and running our world today are self-taught, or teach each other, to a higher degree than they are educated by formal schooling. Look at Khan Academy and the home-schooling movement, both of which in many ways outperform formal institutional education. This model for employment of self and others will also spread to other professions. The great educator John Taylor Gatto , who won many awards for his teaching and rarely obeyed curricular requirements, says nearly all attempts to reform education make it worse.
We are by nature learning animals. We are each also very different: both from each other and from who we were yesterday. As a society we need to take advantage of that, and nurture our natural hunger for knowledge and productive work while respecting and encouraging our diversity, a fundamental balancing feature of all nature, human and otherwise. But we will likely see a radical economic disruption in education — using new tools and means to learn and certify learning — and that is the way by which we will manage to train many more people in many new skills. An earlier and more enduring focus on stats and statistical literacy — which can readily be taught using current affairs, for example, analyzing the poll numbers from elections, the claims made by climate change scientists, or even the excellent oral arguments in the Supreme Court Texas abortion law case — would impart skills that transferred well into IT, programming and, especially, security.
About , years ago, Earth experienced its first Cambrian Explosion — a period of rapid cellular evolution and diversification that resulted in the foundation of life as we know it today. We are clearly in the dawn of a new age, one that is marked not just by advanced machines but, rather, machines that are starting to learn how to think. Soon, those machines that can think will augment humankind, helping to unlock our creative and industrial potential.
Some of the workforce will find itself displaced by automation. That includes anyone whose primary job functions are transactional bank tellers, drivers, mortgage brokers. However, there are many fields that will begin to work alongside smart machines: doctors, journalists, teachers. The most important skill of any future worker will be adaptability. This current Cambrian Explosion of machines will mean diversification in our systems, our interfaces, our code.
Workers who have the temperament and fortitude to quickly learn new menu screens, who can find information quickly, and the like will fare well. I do not see the wide-scale emergence of training programs during the next 10 years due to the emergence of smart machines alone. The jury is very much out on the extent to which acquisition of knowledge and reasoning skills requires human interaction. We now have empirical evidence that a substantial percentage — half or more — can be gained through self-study using computer-assisted techniques.
The path forward for society as a whole is strewn with obstacles of self-interest, ignorance, flawed economics, etc. Here I want to focus on other areas. The issue is not just training but cultural re-evaluation of teaching and healing as highly respected skills. Few of us make anything we use — from the building we live in to the objects we own — and these things are mostly manufactured as cheaply as possible, to be easily bought, discarded, and bought again, in a process of relentless acquisition that often brings little happiness.
Very easily accessible learning for how to fix these things themselves and making it economically rewarding, in the case of a common good — is a simple, basic example of the kind of ubiquitous craft learning that at scale would be enormously valuable. Some of this can be taught online — a key component is also online coordination.
Certainly science and technology are important, but we need to refocus liberal education, not ignore it. History, in all its complexity. Critical thinking — how to debate, how to recognize persuasive techniques, how to understand multiple perspectives, how to mediate between different viewpoints. Calms and focuses toward results. Is often loud, hostile and chaotic. Figure In This Class We. By definition a social contract exists to meet the needs of its members.
Usually a good sign that it needs to be modified is the presence of conflict. If we experience a persistent problem in the class we may want to go about a system of problem solving and then adopt the new solution into our social contract. For example, if we find the students fighting over who gets to use the computers, it is a sign that we need a better system for computer use.
As in all cases related to the development of the social contract, the more democratic the process is, the more sense of ownership of the outcome there will likely be. So when contentious issues arise among members of the class, it may signal the opportunity for a class meeting or at least a brainstorming exercise. Chapter Reflection j: What is your instinct when conflict arises in your class or within groups that you are leading? Is it to take over or is it to use the conflict as an opportunity for growth and problem solving? If you are attempting to head down the road of being a 1-type teacher, you will want to find an efficient system for conducting class meetings.
Recall that they do not need to take more than a few minutes. Power Struggles. As we examine the idea of potential power struggle situations with students. It is important to keep in mind that the social contract is the framework from which we are working. In many cases, what is occurring during a power struggle is the student testing the integrity of the social contract. When a student defies us openly, we are naturally going to feel angry and offended, and our tendency encouraged by our own defensive pain-body reaction would then be to exert our power and show the student who was boss.
While this may feel satisfying in the moment, it produces a number of undesirable effects, including:. Chapter Reflection k : What is your tendency when students challenge you? What happens when we take the challenge and engage the student? So what do we do when a student challenges us instead of reacting to the personal offense with reactivity or some kind? Cuwin and Mendler offer a process for dealing with a power struggle successfully.
It provides a coherent and sensible approach to dealing with student-teacher conflict that will save us a lot of pain and suffering. And as we consider it within the context of the social contract it has the following effects:. Dealing with a power struggle. Curwin and Mendler offer the following 7-steps to success when confronted by a student who attempts to engage us in a power struggle. Students who feel a sense of power and control, are making progress toward their goals, are supported by the teacher, have avenues to share concerns, and are given choices and not backed into corners by harsh directives will be much less likely to feel the need to engage the teacher in a power struggle.
If the encounter begins publicly, quickly move it into a private, one-to-one interaction. A public stage will put the student in a position where they must defend their image, and put you in a position that you feel the need to demonstrate your power. Chapter Reflection l: Recall the social learning model here. What does a public implementation create? If the student tries to hook you in by making you feel guilty or responsible for their inappropriate behavior, simply ignore the hook and give the responsibility back to the student.
A hook is intended to shift the focus externally to you or another factor. They act to shift blame and pull you in. If you become drawn in on a personal level, the student is then in control. Chapter Reflection m: What hooks have you heard students use? Share your story with your colleagues or classmates? Reflect on what hooks are trying to do, and why it is so tempting to play into them.
Throughout the process we need to project an unconditional positive regard for the student. We need to side with their feelings and concerns, but at the same time maintain a clear understanding that they are accountable. If we go negative, they will lose sight of the intervention being about their responsibility and see it as a punishment that is coming from an external agent i. The rest of the conversation is secondary.
But be careful not to badger the student. A calm or encouraging affect can each be effective, but aggressiveness will be counterproductive. There is no need to act powerful — the reality is that you have the real power of the social contract and your rights as a teacher. Chapter Reflection n: When you visualize being in a power struggle with a student do you find yourself naturally wanting to be either aggressive or feeling fearful. Visualize a power struggle situation. What emotions do you feel arising? Now visualize the interaction without fear or aggressiveness, simply awareness and clear communication.
Can you feel your thinking becoming clearer, and do you now see the student as less threatening as well? There is no need to hover or pressure the student. Shift your attention back into your teaching. Model constructive, rational, positive behavior. Applying the Steps to a Classroom Situation. Now let us applying these 7 steps above to a classroom situation in which a student challenges us to a power struggle see table In this case we will assume that we have done an effective job of developing our social contract and creating clear expectations in our class.
However, on this day, for some reason, maybe some displaced aggression from an earlier parent — child interaction, the student feels a need to challenge us, and engage us in a power struggle. Power Struggle Scenario:. Imagine that you have just completed an activity where your students individually completed a project that required them to use paper and poster making materials. You gave the class a 5-minute warning before you asked them to clean up their desk areas and get ready to go. As you are ready to dismiss them, you detect that on one desk there is still a noticeable amount of paper.
When and How To Let a Conflict Go
But for some reason, today is different. The student does not move to clear their desk. Lets suppose that the student is hinting at his or her disposition on the matter by avoiding eye contact with you. As your blood pressure begins to rise, you realize that you need to be purposeful and deliberate right now, and use this opportunity to take a step forward in your own conflict skills, toward better classroom relationships, and improved clarity or the classroom social contract.
You dismiss the rest of the class and ask the student to stay. Steps for. Successfully Negotiating a Power Struggle. Paper on the desk example. Do not manufacture power struggle consider if your teaching has been a contributing factor. Recall if there was something that occurred during the activity that the student may be responding to. Did you inadvertently make a derogatory comment about the work or have you alienated the student in the past. If so, this is a good time to do some healing. But no matter what responsibility you need to take to fix your part of the relationship, the bottom line remains.
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The student made an agreement to live up to the social contract. Part of that responsibility is to do their part of the clean up. Your request was reasonable. You are the facilitator of the contract, so it was your job to make the request. It is not your job to judge, shame, lecture, or bring up past history.
As you approach the student keep 2 simple ideas paramount: show real concern by helping the student to grow, and keep the focus of the interaction on the act and the responsibilities that go along with the choice to take action — relationship and responsibility.
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Move into a private and out of a public encounter. If you foresee a power struggle situation forming, it will help if you do not take part in the interaction in a public forum. So close the proximity gap and move near to the student. And depending on the situation moving to a private location might be best. The fewer distractions and the more immediate the resolution the better the outcome will be. If the student is still sitting in the chair and has not taken the sensible step to clean up their learning area, then it is a good bet that they are deliberately going to engage us in a power struggle.
It is useful for us to understand at this point that the student is experiencing pain in some form, and they at intent on sharing some of that pain with us. If we shift into pity mode, or defense mode, we will soon be in a power struggle. At this point, it makes sense to repeat the request again — calmly and clearly. Once we respond to the hook we are in an argument, and the student has shifted the focus of the interaction to their agenda and away from their responsibility.
Calmly acknowledge the power struggle. It may be useful at some point in the interaction to help the student become aware of the dynamics of the situation. That is not is not going to help either one of us resolve this situation. Just show empathy and awareness of the dynamic. The more awareness that can come into the situation the more reasoned the thinking will be. A useful mental thought here is to mirror the affect that you want from the student. Without being too psycho-analytical, it is useful to let the student know that you understand that they have some pain that is causing this need to engage you.
The mistake would be to respond in a way that attempted to defend our self against the accusation of non-liking, or ignore the idea completely implying that maybe they are right. But we can only control the choices that we make, this student needs to take responsibility for theirs. However, the phrasing you would use should point out the current choice the student is making and the resulting consequence to that choice. So our statement after a few minutes of student inaction should imply that the student must somehow show a commitment that this will not happen again.
Our social contract only works when all of us live up to our agreements. You need to clean up your area and explain to me in writing is best how and why this is not going to happen again, before I can consider you a responsible and committed member of this class.
Put your emotional energy into constructive matters. Your physical actions throughout this process are also meaningful. Avoid hovering or standing over the student. Giving the student space sends the message that they are free to make a decision without coercion. Do essentially what you would do if you were alone in the room.
If they want to engage in something constructive, you will be there, but there is nothing they can do to get you to join in their pain party. Fearing the idea of students saying NO. As long as the student makes the choice, by virtue of their willful action, to dismiss or reject the social contract, they have made the choice to step outside of it until they show a commitment to being a responsible member.
It may be the case that no student makes that kind of choice all year. If we do a good job of creating a healthy learning community, it is likely to happen rarely if ever. But if we fear a student engaging us in a power struggle or rejecting a request, we will always carry a bit of unnecessary anxiety.
Yet, if we keep in mind that, at any moment, a students has the choice to be responsible or not to be responsible. So, if they choose not to be, that is their right, and we do have to get angry or scared, we simply need to give them a clear context to make future choices. Therefore, it is possible that one day a student may choose to step out of there commitment to the class, and we need to be able to show the tough love it takes to let them make that choice. Examined within the social learning model the message is that the contract is neither sound nor sacred. While no other student may see themselves as wanting to disrespect the contract, they will likely lose respect for it, when they view it being disregarded.
It may not be conscious, but expect an erosion of commitment to the social contract. Conversely, when we hold students accountable, no matter how difficult it may be, we send the message to the members of the group that the social contract has integrity. Chapter Reflection o: When a student says no to you, what has your inclination been to this point? How will you approach it in the future? Conflict will be present in any class. How we process it will define the effect that it has on our students. As we examine the process for creating the 1-style classroom and the qualities of a classroom community in the coming chapters, you will recognize that conflict can be an opportunity for growth.
Moreover, it can provide a means to discovering the empowerment that comes from knowing that one can maintain awareness and intention in the face of problematic situations. In addition, power struggles can become opportunities to learn responsibility and to strengthen the social contract. In the next chapter we will examine how to work with difficult students. We will need to build on the concepts from this chapter to be effective.
If we take the position that difficult students need to be punished and put in their place, we will find ourselves engaged in perpetual power struggles, and our efforts will not support the growth of the student toward more functional behavior. Journal Reflections. Recall the last power struggle that you have observed. Did the teacher use the skills and processes recommended in the Chapter? Reflect on the classes that you have observed that seem to be conflict-free. What did the teacher do to promote this condition?
Conversely, reflect on those classes that seemed to be mired in conflict on a regular basis. What did the teacher do to contribute to the situation? Chapter Activities.
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In small groups, role play power struggle scenarios. Have one member of the group take the role of the student who is trying to hook the teacher into a power struggle, and one member take the role of the teacher who is trying to guide the interaction to a positive outcome. It will be helpful to pay attention to the steps suggested by Curwin and Mendler on page Some possible power struggle scenarios:.
After the role play, have all members of the group discuss what they would have done, and whether they felt the intervention of the member taking the role of the teacher was effective and why. The next time someone initiates conflict with you, see if you can apply the skills outlined in the win-win conflict resolution on page Then reflect on the difference it makes in coming to a constructive outcome. Conduct a web-quest related to conflict resolution programs.
What do you find that these programs have in common? In your group role play the following conflict resolution situations. Choose either the elementary or secondary scenario. Pick on member of your group to be the teacher and two others to be students. Student A comes to you and tells you that student B has been pushing them.
Student A is crying. Student B quickly comes up to your desk and tells you that student A was pushing them too. Help guide the students through a conflict resolution process. As you approach one group in your class you can see that they are off track. Student A tells you that student B is not doing their job in the project.